Vše na jednom místě

Abstracts (4/2012)

Jaroslav Brož: „Ať žijeme, ať umíráme, patříme Pánu“. Perspektiva smrti a nového života v Pavlových listech. / “If we live, we live to the Lord, and if we die, we die to the Lord”: The Perspective of Death and of the New Life in Paul’s Letters

“Death”, “dying” and “life” as central themes of Christianity, correspond to the universal questions of ancient philosophy and popular wisdom. St. Paul re- flects these themes while he presents manifold consequences of Christ’s death as a unique historical event and universal act of salvation. In his sense of rea- lity, the Apostle focuses on the negative meaning of death in its natural mani- festation and in its theological meaning as something that enslaves man. Only through Christ’s paschal mystery, human dying and death receive a positive sense and a new perspective. The Christian baptism is a sacramental form of dying which has ethical consequences. While a disciple of Jesus accomplishes the great commandment of love, he/she dies to him/herself, and lives in hope that the power of Christ’s resurrection will be manifested in him. Participation in Christ’s victory over death is in this earthly existence rather an object of ex- pectations and an encouragement to an ethical behaviour than a fully experi- enced reality. This transitory status can be lived as a meaningful existence only in an authentic spiritual attitude of “being crucified with Christ” (cf. Gal 2:20).

Vojtěch Brož: Smrt v janovské literatuře / Death in the Johannine Literature

The article presents a view of the theme of death in the Johannine literature. The Forth Gospel, the First Letter of John and the Apocalypse contain this im- portant theme, which is an indispensable part of the message of each of them. The death of Jesus is read as the hour of his glorification and victory and the hour of our salvation. We receive life from his death, so we have eternal life al- ready in this time and we expect our future resurrection. The condition of this gift is our belief. If someone doesn’t believe, he/she remains in death, similarly to the one who commits sins that lead to death, to the second, definitive death.

Jana Maroszová: „Zanech kvasu, boj se času posledního...“ Umírání a smrt z pohledu barokních básníků. / “Leave all feasts, fear death...“ Dying and Death from the View of Baroque Poets
Traditionally, the Baroque art and literature are associated with various forms of portraying two essential thoughts: memento mori and carpe diem. This ar- ticle shows how the subject of death could be dealt with in the German ba- roque poetry.

Pavel Frývaldský: Teologie smrti a „ars moriendi“ podle Josepha Ratzin- gera – Benedikta XVI. / Theology of Death and “Ars Moriendi” according to Joseph Ratzinger – Benedict XVI
The article presents the Christian view of the meaning of death and dying, as it is presented in the work of Joseph Ratzinger – Benedict XVI. The Christian understanding of death follows the realism of the Old Testament, but it goes beyond it. The crucial difference to the Old Testament represents the Easter event of death and Resurrection of Jesus Christ. Christians are involved in Christ’s death through their baptism and the Eucharist. They win over the dark power of death by powerful means of God’s love.

Guy Gaucher: „Nikdy nebudu vědět jak zemřít“ – Terezie z Lisieux / “I will never know how to die” – Thérèse of Lisieux
Saints are often presented as examples of people who were able to overcome their fear of death and died exemplarily. The testimony from the last months of life of Thérèse of Lisieux, however, shows that even this saint when she was dying, was undergoing all the sufferings of her disease. Although Thérèse was facing complete helplessness, she approached her death as someone who was going to fight, like a warrior; at the same time she was struggling like a child, like a sister of St. Joan of Arc: Her most powerful weapon was her commitment to God.

Karel Sládek / Pavel Vojtěch Kohut OCD: „Otče, oslav své jméno“ (Jan 12, 28). Teologicko-pastorační podněty pro duchovní prožívání stáří a umí- rání. / “Father, glorify your name.” (John 12:28) Theological and pastoral ideas for the spiritual experience of aging and dying

This article presents in three parts a huge number of theological and pastoral ideas about how to experience the old age and dying. In the first part of the text, the very absence of aging and dying as stages of life in the contemporary and traditional presentations of the development of spiritual life, in the so- -called itineraries, is discussed. A possible way how to deal with such an issue shows Federico Ruiz. The second part of this article is more focused on aging and dying from the practical point of view. The last stages of life are to be seen not only as an opportunity to discover the meaning of life at its final stage, but also as a possibility for celebration of God’s name and the particular hu- man existence. This can be experienced only by means of great sensitivity and attention to accompaniment of aging and dying people. The latter aspect is further analyzed in the third section, which emphasizes that the accompani- ment of aging and dying people is an opportunity for both the accompanied and the accompanying people to learn to pray and love selflessly, which gives life a new logic of Christian existence led not only by strength and usefulness, but also appreciating the weak, poor and humble.

Robert Spaemann: Umírání v dnešní době / Dying Nowadays

Nowadays, as we observe the world around us, we can conclude that our secu- larized society is attempting to eliminate the existence of death from human consciousness. This polemical article emphasizes the fact that the reality of death is completely excluded from everyday life. Death is increasingly taking place in hidden rooms in hospitals. This has two consequences: The first con- sequence is a suppressed, but intensive fear of death. Most people seem aware that they will probably die without ever having seen someone die. The other consequence is the elimination of all those who are not considered as strong members of society – the old in the first place.

Antoine Bodar: Stáří / Old Age

Throughout our lives we are invited to behave so that we can die with dignity. We believe that in the hour of death we are born to eternal life. In this article, the author brings up thoughts on what is a good life, and reflections on the old age and relationship of people to the old. The intellectual basis for further individual reflections is provided by quotations and paraphrases of famous utterances from the Old and New Testament.