3/2013: Moudrost

Editorial (5–9)

Alexis Leproux, „Zamiloval jsem si Moudrost...“ (10–20)

David Vopřada, Augustinova cesta k Boží Moudrosti – Kristus a církev (21–34)

Tomáš Machula, Moudrost lidská a božská podle Tomáše Akvinského (35–43)

Jana Maroszová, Zrcadlo či loď. O moudrosti v bláznovské literatuře raného novověku (44–68)

Karel Sládek, O moudrosti v pojetí Tomáše Špidlíka (69–76)

Paul McPartlan, Teologie v rámci unverzity. Ocenění dokumentu Mezinárodní teologické komise (77–86)

Prokop Brož, Mnohotvará Boží moudrost (Ef 3, 10) (86–100)

Mezinárodní setkání redakcí Communio v Praze (101–103)


50 Kč

Abstracts (1–2/2013)

COMMUNIO 1-2: The Beatitudes

Vojtěch Brož: Ježíš a blahoslavenství / Jesus and the Beatitudes

The opening text of the current issue is a summary of the overall meaning of the Beatitudes of the New Testament (Matthew 5: 3–12), actually outlining the program of the Kingdom of God. The Beatitudes are to be understood in a mature biblical sense, i.e. as the joy in God. They involve the eschatological aspect that the future begins in the present, and describe the fulfillment, which, however, has already entered this earthly time. The Beatitudes have begun to fulfill our history. All eight Beatitudes can only be understood and accepted when they are interpreted from the Christological viewpoint as sharing the life of God, which is Jesus himself.

Tomáš Machula: Výklad blahoslavenství u Tomáše Akvinského / On the Beatitudes by Thomas Aquinas

The paper analyses commentaries on the Beatitudes by Thomas Aquinas. The close relationship between theory and practice, typical of the Dominican theology, is also stressed. The text starts with Thomas’ commentary on the Gospel of Matthew and with his Summa theologica. Thomas mainly concerned himself with Matthew’s version of the Beatitudes. He regards the first seven Beatitudes together as a whole, while he sees the eighth Beatitude as a summary of all of the previous ones. Once all of the connections between the Beatitudes and blessedness are laid out, each of the Beatitudes is then interpreted. Both Thomas’ differentiation of the Beatitudes and the way in which he matches them to the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit are taken into account.

Mistr Eckhart: LXXXVII. Beati pauperes spiritu, quia ipsorum est regnum caelorum (Mt 5, 3) / Meister Eckhart: Sermon LXXXVII Beati pauperes spiritu, quia ipsorum est regnum caelorum (Matthew 5:3)

First of all, in his famous sermon, Meister Eckhart mentions that there are two kinds of poverty: the outer, and the inner, while the word of the Lord deals with inner poverty (cf. Matthew 5:3). M. Eckhart defines a poor man as a man who wills nothing, knows nothing, and has nothing. In the following theological and philosophical reflections, a detailed explanation of the definition is given. The poverty of spirit means that a person is ready to accept everything from God, as well as emptiness, so that He can freely work in the human soul. Such a person is a pure God-bearer in his works. The poor in spirit offer themselves to God completely, so that He can work in them.

Michael Figura: Duch svatý Těšitel / The Holy Spirit as Comforter

This paper presents the Holy Spirit as Paraclete, systematically in the context of the second Beatitude: “Blessed are those who mourn, for they shall be comforted” (Matthew 5:4). Firstly, a couple of significant texts in the Christian tradition illustrate that it is correct to speak about the Holy Spirit as a comforter, following which can be found brief remarks on elements of spiritual consolation. The theme of spiritual consolation and suffering is presented, with particular examples being Diadochos of Photiki and Ignatius of Loyola. Biblical passages about the Holy Spirit as a Comforter are analysed, particularly the utterances in the Gospel According to John and in Epistles of Paul. This short study is accompanied by numerous quotations and references to further sources.

Vojtěch Novotný: Blaze tichým, neboť oni dostanou zemi za dědictví / “Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth”

This paper discusses the Beatitude of the meek. It is concerned with the Biblical utterance and explains each word of the verse, its origin in the Old Testament (cf. Psalm 37: motif of a country as heritage), and connections with utterances in the New Testament (the meek Jesus, heir – heirs – heritage). The meek are all those, both Jewish and Gentile, who have been justified by divine mercy and the charity of God, the Father of the crucified and resurrected Jesus. Thanks to the Holy Spirit, they became God’s children, and heirs together with Jesus Christ. In the earthly life, their inheritance comprises participation in Christ’s suffering in His meekness and humility, so they learn how to be and how to act if they want to take part in the life of the incarnated Son of God and the Trinity. They share their lives with the life of the Crucified, and furthermore, with the resurrected Christ in heaven. Their inheritance includes divine glory and eternal life. Those who are meek by the power of the Holy Spirit are meek together with Christ, and they are blessed like Him, because they receive in Him the “Promised and Holy Land”, the “space” where God meets man in eternity, and where a human being finds his or her eternal home, God’s face, and a filial relationship with Him.

Hlad a žízeň po spravedlnosti. Antologii z patristické exegeze čtvrtého blahoslavenství sestavil David Vopřada / Hunger and Thirst for Righteousness Anthology of Patristic Exegesis of the Fourth Beatitude By David Vopřada

The anthology of patristic exegesis of the fourth Beatitude – “Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they shall be satisfied” (Matthew 5:6) – provides a selection of significant texts written by the following Latin and Greek Church Fathers: Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Cyprian, Hilary of Poitiers, Ambrose, Chromatius of Aquileja, Gaudentius of Brescia, Jerome, John Chrysostom, Augustine, Leo the Great, Venerable Bede, and an anonymous Arian author. A short description of each Church Father and his commentary are added.

Jan Ambaum: Milosrdenství a odpuštění hříchů / Mercy and Forgiveness of Sins

The author’s personal reflection on mercy inspired by the utterance: “Blessed are the merciful, for they shall receive mercy” (Matthew 5:7), is an attempt to illustrate the relationship between morality and mercy in the church today. The subsequent text is based on the question of whether a level of rigidity prevails in the church and in its proclamation – a rigidity that narrows the view of mercy. The answer to this question is ultimately derived from the Christological deepening of the concept of “mercy”.

Stefaan Van Calster: Buďte milosrdní jako je milosrdný váš Otec / “Be merciful, even as your Father is merciful”

The purpose of this paper, which is based on the Encyclical by Pope John Paul II Dives in misericordia, is to characterize the inner essence of Christian mercy from a pastoral viewpoint. The crucial idea is that Christian mercy is a form of mercy corresponding to divine mercy, and to the Acting of God the Father and Christ as the Good Shepherd. God’s behaviour is an example for every Christian.

Vojtěch Janšta: Blahoslavenství čistého srdce v teologii a spiritualitě Hugo Rahnera / Beatitude of the Pure Heart in Theology and Spirituality of Hugo Rahner

This comprehensive systematic study on the Beatitude of the pure in heart – “Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God” (Matthew 5:8) – focuses on the standpoint of Hugo Rahner, one of the major German theologians of the 20th century. Rahner reflects on the mystery of the Lord’s Heart, pure in its fullness, and on Jesus’ earthly life. The reflection culminates in a view of the pure heart of Jesus pierced on the cross. This is an example for every disciple of Jesus, and a model of how to be pure in heart, and how to see God in pivotal events in world history. This study contains a number of valuable points.

Joachim Gnilka: Blahoslavení tvůrci pokoje / Blessed are the Peacemakers

This paper is a biblical reflection on the seventh Beatitude: “Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons of God” (Matthew 5:9). The actual interpretation of the Beatitude takes into account the other Gospel texts and the historical situation of Jesus. It is preceded by remarks on the terms “war” and “peace” in the Old Testament, in Greco-Roman literature, and the New Testament.

Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger: Role náboženství vzhledem k současné krizi míru a spravedlnosti / Role of Religion in the Recent Crisis of Peace and Justice

Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger presents in this text how religion can contribute to a solution to the recent crisis of peace and justice. He starts with the presupposition that peace and justice are closely linked. The crisis of peace is to be seen in relation to the crisis of justice, and vice versa. In the first part of the text, four examples are presented of how peace can at the present time be endangered. On the basis of the first part and of the phenomena, the second part defines what peace is, what justice means, and how both of them are intertwined. In addition, the connection between peace and justice is followed by the theme of law, of its contents, and by the theme of injustice. The third part of the text discusses the ethical role of religion. The author concentrates on a specific manifestation of religion, Catholicism. He describes how religious belief could and should support peace, what our belief can do in order to answer such questions, and what it can’t and mustn’t do if it wants to stand up for its essence faithfully.

Hans Urs von Balthasar: Je ukřižovanému „blaze“? / Is the Crucified “Blessed”?

Hans Urs von Balthasar asks in his short, but lapidary contribution whether the Lord was feeling blessed while being crucified, and in connection with that, the author discusses whether those who are giving testimony for Jesus in various forms of suffering, hardship and distress, with martyrdom included, are feeling blessed.

Adrienne von Speyr: Odměna lásky / A Reward of Love

This article presents a short extract from the book The Sermon on the Mount. A Meditation on Matthew 5–7. It is an interpretation of the following biblical verses: “Blessed are those who are persecuted for righteousness’ sake, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are you when others revile you, and persecute you, and utter all kinds of evil against you falsely on my account. Rejoice and be glad, for your reward is great in heaven, for so they persecuted the prophets who were before you.” (Matthew 5:10–12). The interpretation is not an academic paper in the modern sense, but rather a spiritual text that invites contemplation.

Jan Hojda: Putování k domovu. extáze, exodus a exitus Juraje Hordubala / On the way Home. Ecstasy, Exodus and Exitus of Juraj Hordubal

This paper deals with theological and anthropological interpretation of the novel Hordubal, a work by the Czech writer Karel Čapek. It primarily focuses on the topic of life journey of the protagonist of the novel. It especially points out that the symbolically portrayed personal journey in the novel is inextricably linked with the theme of dying. Thus the themes of ecstasy, exodus and exitus are closely connected with participation in human reciprocity, selfless love and fidelity. The article emphasizes that a novel can show how the dynamics of a human person is anchored in participation in the communio of Trinitarian love. Based on existential participation in the life of the Incarnate Son, the dying of a human being can also become a way out of oneself towards God the Father and the eternal home.

Editorial (1–2/2013)

Zajištěný a bezstarostný život, štěstí a zdraví. Kdo by si to nepřál? Cesty k uskutečnění naší touhy ovšem nebývají tak přímé, jak bychom chtěli. Při konfrontaci našich přání s životní realitou dříve či později docházíme kromě jiného také k poznání, jak mnohdy neplatí, že za dobrotu, poctivost a zbožnost je člověk automaticky odměňován zdarem či zahrnut hojností majetku a obklopen spoustou přátel. Mnozí mohou zapochybovat a ptát se sami sebe, zdali není lepší orientovat se pouze na zisk, výkon a lukrativní strategické vztahy. Protože Bůh stvořil člověka, zná velmi dobře i jeho nejskrytější jádro a podstatu. Ne náhodou začíná Pán Ježíš své horské kázání blahoslavenstvími. Jako by svým slovem učedníky zbavoval růžových brýlí, iluzorních představ o běhu světa a falešných nadějí. Učí je odkládat veškerý sebeklam, ale zároveň potvrzuje legitimnost jejich očekávání: ano, je pravda, že za spravedlivý a poctivý život člověk bude odměněn, že – jak praví jedna lidová moudrost – s poctivostí nejdál dojde… Ovšem jedná se o odměnu, která není z tohoto světa, nepomíjí a mnohem velkolepějším způsobem převyšuje veškeré lidské představy a to, co se pokládá za štěstí zde na zemi. Pán Ježíš nepopírá lidská očekávání, ale ukazuje svým učedníkům svůj – božský – pohled na věc. Vše pozoruje již z perspektivy konečného vítězství spravedlnosti a dobra nad mocnostmi temnoty. Blahoslavenství nicméně představují pro člověka současně nadlidský úkol, znamenají nést kříž na cestě plné drásavého trní a ostrých kamenů. Ale člověk nemusí kráčet životem sám, nýbrž v důvěře v Pána a jeho milost, v doprovodu jeho Slova – bez toho by se každý kříž a utrpení staly nesnesitelnými.

Dvojčíslo Communia je věnováno biblickým blahoslavenstvím. Revue jsme uspořádali jako tematickou sbírku textů, jež přináší různé pohledy na blahoslavenství u Matouše, ovšem nejen u něj. Na začátek jsme zařadili příspěvek nazvaný „Ježíš a blahoslavenství“, v němž Vojtěch Brož vykládá novozákonní popis vyhlášení blahoslavenství. Zamýšlí se nad komunikační situací Horského kázání a promluv Ježíše k lidu a všímá si různých významů výrazu pro „blaženost“ v řecké antice, ve Starém zákoně a konečně ve spojení s postavou Božího Syna. V následujícím příspěvku Tomáš Machula podává obsáhlý a přehledný výklad blahoslavenství v díle sv. Tomáše Akvinského.

Další pořadí článků se přidržuje výčtu jednotlivých blahoslavenství, jak je traduje evangelium podle svatého Matouše: U Řádu bratří kazatelů ještě setrváme pohledem na slavné kázání Mistra Eckharta o blahoslavenství chudých v duchu. K blahoslavenství plačících, kteří mají být potěšeni (srov. Mt 5, 4), jsme přiřadili zamyšlení Michaela Figury nad tím, co znamená útěcha od Boha, a nad svatým Duchem – Utěšitelem. Vojtěch Novotný se zabývá blahoslavenstvím tichých, zatímco David Vopřada přináší ve svém příspěvku patristickou exegezi čtvrtého blahoslavenství – o těch, kdo lační a žízní po spravedlnosti. Článek je sestaven jako čítanka patristických textů a sdružuje v sobě moudrosti církevních otců obecně známých i méně známých. Dalšímu blahoslavenství – milosrdných, jež dojdou milosrdenství (srov. Mt 5, 7) – se věnují hned dva příspěvky: Jan Ambaum podává zamyšlení nad milosrdenstvím v souvislosti s odpuštěním hříchů a Stefaan Van Calster se dívá na Boží a křesťanské milosrdenství z pohledu pastorace, rozebírá úlohu duchovních a člověka majícího pastorační poslání. Vojtěch Janšta se zabývá blahoslavenstvím těch, kdo mají čisté srdce, v kontextu teologie a spirituality Huga Rahnera. Následuje blahoslavenství tvůrců pokoje (Mt 5, 9), k němuž se tematicky vztahují dva články. V prvním z nich zkoumá Joachim Gnilka význam slov mír a pokoj ve Starém i Novém zákoně a všímá si rovněž historického kontextu. Joseph kardinál Ratzinger (dnes již emeritní papež Benedikt XVI.) nepojednává ve svém příspěvku ani tak o biblickém verši, ale zaměřuje se na konkrétní možnosti a podoby šíření pokoje, míru a spravedlnosti v současném světě a na úlohu církve v tomto poslání. Nakonec přicházejí poslední dvě blahoslavenství: všech těch, kdo jsou pro Boží slovo pronásledováni, tupeni a musejí snášet mnohá utrpení. Hans Urs von Balthasar se ve svém krátkém, lapidárním zamyšlení táže, zdali je blaze Pánu Ježíši jakožto ukřižovanému, a v souvislosti s tím, zdali se blaze cítí lidé v okamžiku, kdy musejí vydávat svědectví pro Krista v různých podobách utrpení, včetně mučednictví. Stejnému tématu se věnuje Adrienne von Speyr ve své úvaze nad příslušnými novozákonními verši (Mt 5, 10–12). Celé dvojčíslo uzavírá tematický dozvuk minulého čísla Communia: Jan Hojda ve svém příspěvku teologicky interpretuje umírání v literárním díle Karla Čapka.

1-2/2013: Blahoslavenství

Editorial (6–7)

Vojtěch Brož, Ježíš a blahoslavenství (8–23)

Tomáš Machula, Výklad blahoslavenství u sv. Tomáše Akvinského (24–40)

Mistr Eckhart, Beati pauperes spiritu, quia ipsorum est regnum caelorum (Mt 5, 3) (41–45)

Michael Figura, Duch svatý těšitel (46–56)

Vojtěch Novotný, Blaze tichým, neboť oni dostanou zemi za dědictví (57–67)

David Vopřada, Hlad a žízeň po spravedlnosti. Antologie z patristické exegeze čtvrtého blahoslavenství (68–87)

Jan Ambaum, Milosrdenství a odpuštění hříchů (88–93)

Stefaan Van Calster, Buďte milosrdní, jako je milosrdný váš Otec (94–97)

Vojtěch Janšta, Blahoslavenství čistého srdce v teologii a spiritualitě Hugo Rahnera (98–121)

Joachim Gnilka, Blahoslavení tvůrci pokoje (122–128)

Joseph Ratzinger, Role náboženství vzhledem k současné krizi míru a spravedlnosti (129–139)

Hans Urs von Balthasar, Je Ukřižovaný „blažený“? (140–142)

Adrienne von Speyr, Odměna lásky (143–148)

Jan Hojda, Putování k domovu. Extáze, exodus a exitus Juraje Hordubala (149–177)

Abstracts (178)

100 Kč

Abstracts (4/2012)

Jaroslav Brož: „Ať žijeme, ať umíráme, patříme Pánu“. Perspektiva smrti a nového života v Pavlových listech. / “If we live, we live to the Lord, and if we die, we die to the Lord”: The Perspective of Death and of the New Life in Paul’s Letters

“Death”, “dying” and “life” as central themes of Christianity, correspond to the universal questions of ancient philosophy and popular wisdom. St. Paul re- flects these themes while he presents manifold consequences of Christ’s death as a unique historical event and universal act of salvation. In his sense of rea- lity, the Apostle focuses on the negative meaning of death in its natural mani- festation and in its theological meaning as something that enslaves man. Only through Christ’s paschal mystery, human dying and death receive a positive sense and a new perspective. The Christian baptism is a sacramental form of dying which has ethical consequences. While a disciple of Jesus accomplishes the great commandment of love, he/she dies to him/herself, and lives in hope that the power of Christ’s resurrection will be manifested in him. Participation in Christ’s victory over death is in this earthly existence rather an object of ex- pectations and an encouragement to an ethical behaviour than a fully experi- enced reality. This transitory status can be lived as a meaningful existence only in an authentic spiritual attitude of “being crucified with Christ” (cf. Gal 2:20).

Vojtěch Brož: Smrt v janovské literatuře / Death in the Johannine Literature

The article presents a view of the theme of death in the Johannine literature. The Forth Gospel, the First Letter of John and the Apocalypse contain this im- portant theme, which is an indispensable part of the message of each of them. The death of Jesus is read as the hour of his glorification and victory and the hour of our salvation. We receive life from his death, so we have eternal life al- ready in this time and we expect our future resurrection. The condition of this gift is our belief. If someone doesn’t believe, he/she remains in death, similarly to the one who commits sins that lead to death, to the second, definitive death.

Jana Maroszová: „Zanech kvasu, boj se času posledního...“ Umírání a smrt z pohledu barokních básníků. / “Leave all feasts, fear death...“ Dying and Death from the View of Baroque Poets
Traditionally, the Baroque art and literature are associated with various forms of portraying two essential thoughts: memento mori and carpe diem. This ar- ticle shows how the subject of death could be dealt with in the German ba- roque poetry.

Pavel Frývaldský: Teologie smrti a „ars moriendi“ podle Josepha Ratzin- gera – Benedikta XVI. / Theology of Death and “Ars Moriendi” according to Joseph Ratzinger – Benedict XVI
The article presents the Christian view of the meaning of death and dying, as it is presented in the work of Joseph Ratzinger – Benedict XVI. The Christian understanding of death follows the realism of the Old Testament, but it goes beyond it. The crucial difference to the Old Testament represents the Easter event of death and Resurrection of Jesus Christ. Christians are involved in Christ’s death through their baptism and the Eucharist. They win over the dark power of death by powerful means of God’s love.

Guy Gaucher: „Nikdy nebudu vědět jak zemřít“ – Terezie z Lisieux / “I will never know how to die” – Thérèse of Lisieux
Saints are often presented as examples of people who were able to overcome their fear of death and died exemplarily. The testimony from the last months of life of Thérèse of Lisieux, however, shows that even this saint when she was dying, was undergoing all the sufferings of her disease. Although Thérèse was facing complete helplessness, she approached her death as someone who was going to fight, like a warrior; at the same time she was struggling like a child, like a sister of St. Joan of Arc: Her most powerful weapon was her commitment to God.

Karel Sládek / Pavel Vojtěch Kohut OCD: „Otče, oslav své jméno“ (Jan 12, 28). Teologicko-pastorační podněty pro duchovní prožívání stáří a umí- rání. / “Father, glorify your name.” (John 12:28) Theological and pastoral ideas for the spiritual experience of aging and dying

This article presents in three parts a huge number of theological and pastoral ideas about how to experience the old age and dying. In the first part of the text, the very absence of aging and dying as stages of life in the contemporary and traditional presentations of the development of spiritual life, in the so- -called itineraries, is discussed. A possible way how to deal with such an issue shows Federico Ruiz. The second part of this article is more focused on aging and dying from the practical point of view. The last stages of life are to be seen not only as an opportunity to discover the meaning of life at its final stage, but also as a possibility for celebration of God’s name and the particular hu- man existence. This can be experienced only by means of great sensitivity and attention to accompaniment of aging and dying people. The latter aspect is further analyzed in the third section, which emphasizes that the accompani- ment of aging and dying people is an opportunity for both the accompanied and the accompanying people to learn to pray and love selflessly, which gives life a new logic of Christian existence led not only by strength and usefulness, but also appreciating the weak, poor and humble.

Robert Spaemann: Umírání v dnešní době / Dying Nowadays

Nowadays, as we observe the world around us, we can conclude that our secu- larized society is attempting to eliminate the existence of death from human consciousness. This polemical article emphasizes the fact that the reality of death is completely excluded from everyday life. Death is increasingly taking place in hidden rooms in hospitals. This has two consequences: The first con- sequence is a suppressed, but intensive fear of death. Most people seem aware that they will probably die without ever having seen someone die. The other consequence is the elimination of all those who are not considered as strong members of society – the old in the first place.

Antoine Bodar: Stáří / Old Age

Throughout our lives we are invited to behave so that we can die with dignity. We believe that in the hour of death we are born to eternal life. In this article, the author brings up thoughts on what is a good life, and reflections on the old age and relationship of people to the old. The intellectual basis for further individual reflections is provided by quotations and paraphrases of famous utterances from the Old and New Testament.


3/2012: Druhý příchod Kristův

Editorial (5)

Vojtěch Novotný, Ježíš Kristus parusiální – Spasitel, Stvořitel, Předurčený (6–17)

Pavel Vojtěch Kohut, „Očekávejte a urychlujte příchod Božího dne! (2 Petr 3, 12): Křesťanský život v perspektivě parusie (18–35)

Peter Henrici, Kdy přijde?: Filosofické úvahy k době parusie (36–44)

Helmut Hoping, Kdy končí každá přetvářka a nespravedlnost: O Božím soudu nad lidstvem (45–54)

Anton Štrukelj, Příchod Pána ve slavení eucharistie (55–61)

Hans Urs von Balthasar, Teologické zamyšlení nad mystériem sestupu do pekel (62–74)

Pavel Frývaldský, Kříž jako „liturgie poslušnosti“: Výklad spasitelného významu Kristova kříže v knize Josepha Ratzingera – Benedikta XVI. „Ježíš Nazaretský“ (75–85)

50 Kč